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Saturday, December 03, 2011

The Borobudur Temple

Borobudur is the name of a Buddhist temple located in Magelang regency, Central Java Magelang-Indonesia.
Location of the temple is approximately 100 miles southwest of Semarang and 40 miles northwest of Yogyakarta. This temple was founded by the Mahayana Buddhists around the year 800 AD during the reign of the Syailendra dynasty.


Many theories that attempt to explain the name of this temple. One of them states that the name is probably derived from the word Sambharabhudhara, which means mountain (bhudara) where the slopes are located terraces. In addition there are several other folk etymology. Suppose the word Borobudur derived from the words "Buddha" is due to shift the sound to Borobudur.

Another explanation is that the name comes from two words "bara" and "beduhur". The word bara said to have originated from the word "biara", while there is also another explanation in which "bara" comes from Sanskrit which means the temple or "biara" and beduhur meaning is "high", or to remind the Balinese language means "above". So the point is a convent or dormitory located on high ground.

Historian J.G. de Casparis in his dissertation to earn his doctorate in 1950 argued that Borobudur is a place of worship.Based on the Karangtengah inscriptions and Kahulunan, Casparis estimates, the founder of the Borobudur is the king of the dynasty around 824 AD named Samaratungga the new giant building can be completed at the time of her daughter, Queen Pramudawardhani. Construction of an estimated half-century Borobudur time consuming.


Borobudur punden shaped staircase, which consists of six levels of a square, three levels of a circular and a main stupa as the peak. Also scattered at all levels-levels several stupas.
Borobudur which illustrates clearly the ten-story school of philosophy like a book, Borobudur describes ten levels of Bodhisattva who must pass to reach the perfection of the Buddha.

The foot of Borobudur represents Kamadhatu, the world is still dominated by kama or "low desire". This section is mostly covered by a pile of rocks that allegedly made to strengthen the construction of the temple. At the closed part of this additional structure there are 120 stories Kammawibhangga panel. Small portion was set aside additional structure so that people can still see the relief in this section.
Four floors with walls berelief on it by the experts called Rupadhatu. The floor is rectangular. Rupadhatu is a world that has been able to break free from passion, but still bound by the appearance and shape. This level represents the nature of which, between nature and the natural bottom up. In part this Rupadhatu Buddha statues found in the recesses of the wall above the ballustrade or walkways. 
Start the fifth to the seventh floor the walls are not berelief. This level is called Arupadhatu (which means no tangible form or not). Circular floor plan. This level represents the nature of, where people are free from all desires and bond forms and shapes, but have not reached nirvana. Buddha statues are placed inside the stupa is covered with holes like a cage. From outside the statues were still dim.
Highest levels form describing the absence of a stupa represented the largest and highest. Stupa depicted plain without holes. In the largest stupa, apparently there used to be a statue depiction Adibuddha. The statue, thought to have come from the largest stupa is now placed in an archaeological museum, a few hundred yards from the temple of Borobudur. This statue is known as the Buddha's unfinished.

In the past, several statues of Buddha along with 30 stone in relief, two statues of lions, some of kala-shaped stone, stairs and gates are sent to the King of Thailand, Chulalongkorn, who visited the Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia) in 1896 as a gift from the Dutch Government as it.
Borobudur has no cult spaces as other temples. That there are long passages which are narrow roads. The hallways surrounding the walled temple level by level. In the halls of the Buddhist is expected to perform ceremonial walk around the temple to the right. Form of the building without room and terraced structure is believed to be the development of form punden staircase, which is a form of architecture from prehistoric native Indonesia.
Borobudur structure when viewed from above form a mandala structure


At every level carved reliefs on temple walls. These reliefs read off clockwise or mapradaksina called the Old Javanese language derived from Sanskrit meaning is daksina the east. These reliefs variety of story content, among others, there are reliefs of the Hindu epic Ramayana. There are also reliefs Jataka stories.

Reading of the stories are always the relief begins, and ends on the east side of the gate in every level, starting on the left and ends on the right of the gate. So obviously that the east is a staircase up the real (primary) and to the top of the temple, it means that the temple facing the east while the other sides of similar right.

In sequence, the story of the temple reliefs significant briefly as follows:


One of the temple wall carvings at Borobudur Karmawibhangga (southeast corner of the floor 0)

In accordance with the symbolic meaning of the foot of the temple, reliefs that decorate the walls of a hidden shelf, describing the law of karma. Rows of relief is not a story of the series, but in every picture illustrates a story that has a causal correlation. Relief is not just to give an overview of human misconduct penalties will be accompanied by acquired, but also a man of good works and merit. As a whole is a depiction of human life within the circle of birth - life - death (samsara) that never ends, and the Buddhist religion is exactly what will end the chain to get to perfection.


History is a depiction of the Buddha in a row of reliefs (but not a complete history) that starts from the Buddha's descent from heaven Tusita, and ending with the first sermon in the Deer Park near the city of Banaras. These reliefs lined the stairs on the south side, after a row exceeded the relief of 27 frames starting from the east side of the stairs. To 27 frames depicts the activity, both in heaven and in the world, as a preparation to welcome the presence of the Bodhisattvas as the last incarnation of the Buddha. The reliefs depict the birth of the Buddha in this arcapada as Prince Siddhartha, the son of King Suddhodana and Empress Maya of Kapilavastu Affairs. Relief amounted to 120 frames, which ended with the first sermon, which is symbolically expressed as the Turning of the Wheel of Dharma, the teachings of the Buddha is called dharma also means "law", while symbolized as a wheel of dharma.

Jataka and Awadana

Jataka is the story of the Buddha was born as Prince Siddharta before. Protrusion of contents is the subject of good works, which distinguishes the Bodhisattvas of any other creature. Indeed, the collection of service / good deeds is a preparatory stage in the endeavor to keringkat to the buddha's.

While Awadana, basically almost the same as the Jataka but the culprit is not the Bodhisattvas, but other people and the stories collected in the book Diwyawadana meaning noble godlike, and the book Awadana Awadanasataka or a hundred stories. In the reliefs of Borobudur and awadana Jataka, treated equally, meaning that they occur in the same row without distinction. The set of the best known of the life of the Bodhisattvas is Jatakamala or strands of Jataka stories, the work of poets who Aryasura and live in the 4th century AD.


A row of reliefs adorn the walls of the hallway to the second, is the story of a wandering Sudhana tirelessly in his quest for knowledge about the Supreme Truth by Sudhana. Description of the frame 460 based on the Mahayana Buddhist scripture entitled Gandawyuha, and for the lid on the story of another Bhadracari.

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